Hudson River Sloop Clearwater's Public Comment
on EPA's Hudson River PCBs Superfund Reassessment and Proposed Remediation Plan. April 17, 2001.

[ Table Of Contents ] - [ Executive Summary ]
Main Document: [ Part 1 ] - [ Part 2 ] - [ Part 3 ]
[ Conclusion and Recommendations ]



Bopp, R. et al. 1998. Trends in Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Hudson River Basin Sediments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106: 1075-1081.

Legality of Discharges

Butler, Kathleen, Esq. and Richard J. Lippes (03/30/84). Legal notification of a civil action by the Atlantic States Legal Foundation, to Philip Merel, John Welch, and the Secretary of State addressing noncompliance with NPDES/SPDES permit #0007048 by the General Electric, Co. for the Company Capacitor Plant in Hudson Falls, NY.

Herwig, Mark (12/14/93). Letter from General Electric Co. to Wiley Lavigne, Regional Water Engineer with the NYS DEC regarding SPDES modified flow diagram and SPDES permit #NY-0007048.

Huchro, Stanley (05/03/85). Letter from General Electric Co. Capacitor Products Department to William Lamy, Senior Sanitary Engineer of the NYS DEC regarding non-compliance with PCB discharge limit for facility #NY-0007048.

Mezey, P. (05/11/84). Response letter from General Electric Co. Capacitor Products Department to Kathleen Butler, Esq. and Richard J. Lippes, Esq. and the Atlantic States Legal Foundation, Inc. regarding NPDES/SPDES permit violations at Hudson Falls, NY.

NYS DEC (February 9, 1976). Interim Opinion and Order In the Matter of Alleged Violations of Sections 17-0501, 17-0511, and 11-0503 of Environmental Conservation Law of the State of New York by General Electric Company, File # 2833.

NYS DEC (1985). State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) Discharge Permit (NY-0007048) for the General Electric Company. Effective date 03/01/85, expiration date 03/01/90.

NYS DEC (1993). State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) Discharge Permit (NY-0007048) for the General Electric Company. Effective date 12/01/91, expiration date 12/01/96.

NYS DEC (1999). State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) Discharge Permit (NY-0007048) for the General Electric Company. Effective date 12/01/96, expiration date 12/01/01.

US EPA (1975). National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to Discharge (NY0007048) for the General Electric Company. Effective date 01/31/1975, expiration date 01/30/1980.

Human Health

Arcaro, K. F. et al 1999. Antiestrogenicity of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human breast cancer cells. Toxicology, 133: 115-127.

ATSDR (2000). Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Barclay, B., (1993). Hudson River Angler Survey: A report on adherence to fish consumption health advisories among Hudson River anglers. Poughkeepsie, NY, Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Inc.

Belton, T., Roundy, R., Weinstein, N., (1986). Urban Fisherman: Managing the Risks of Toxic Exposure. Environment. 28: 19-36.

Burger, J. (1998). Fishing and Risk along the Savannah River: Possible Intervention. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 55: 405-419.

Burger, J., Pflugh, K.K., Lurig, L., Von Hagen, L.A., Von Hagen, S., (1999). Fishing in Urban New Jersey: Ethnicity Affects Information Sources, Perception, and Compliance. Risk Analysis. 19: 217-229.

Carpenter, D. O. (1998). Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Human Health. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 11(4): 291-303.

Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D., and Myers, J. P. (1996). Our Stolen Future. New York: Dutton.

EPA (1992). IRIS Substance File: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), CASRN 50-32-8. Online at

EPA (2000). Hudson River PCBs Reassessment RI/FS Phase 3 Report: Feasibility Study. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Online at

EPA (2000b). Superfund Proposed Plan: Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 2000.

EPA (2000c). Revised Human Health Risk Assessment: Hudson River PCBs Reassessment RI/FS. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 2000. Online at

Golden, Anne L., Berkowitz, G., Wolff, M.S., Godbold, J.H., Afilaka, A., Chillrud, S.N., Bopp, R., Simpson, H.J., Landrigan, P.J., (1999). Body Burdens of Persistent Pollutants in Hudson River Anglers. Environmental Health Perspectives.

Golden, Anne, et al (1999). Consumption of Locally-Caught Fish and Shellfish Among Women Receiving WIC Services in New York City.

Gray, L. E. et al 1995. Functional Developmental Toxicity of Low Doses of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin and a Dioxin-Like PCB (169) in Long Evans Rats and Syrian Hamsters: Reproductive, Behavioral and Thermoregulatory Alterations. Organohalogen Compounds, 25: 33.

Jacobson, J. L. and Jacobson, S. W. (1996). Intellectual Impairment in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Utero. New England Journal of Medicine, 335(11): 783-789.

Johnson, B. L. et al (1999). Public Health Implications of Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Online at

Korrick, S. A. and Altshul, L. 1998. High Breast Milk Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) among Four Women Living Adjacent to a PCB-Contaminated Waste Site. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(8): 513.

May, H., Burger, J., (1996). Fishing in a Polluted Estuary: Fishing Behavior, Fish Consumption, and Potential Risk. Risk Anal. 16: 459-471.

Mendola, P. et al, 1997. Consumption of PCB-contaminated Freshwater Fish and Shortened Menstrual Cycle Length. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145(11): 955.

New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, February 1999. Health Consultation: 1996 Survey of Hudson River Anglers. Public Review Draft.

New York State Department of Health, 2001. Health Advisories: Chemicals in Game and Sportfish, 2000-2001. Division of Environmental Health Assessment, 2001.

Pflugh, K.K., Lurig, L., VonHagen, S., VonHagen, L.A., Burger, J., (1999). Urban Anglers' Perception of Risk From Contaminated Fish. Sci. Total Environ. 228: 203-218.

Poughkeepsie (2001). Poughkeepsie's Water Treatment Facility.

Rylander, L., Strömberg, U., Dyremark, E. Östman, C, Nilsson-Ehle, P. and Hagman, L. (1998). Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Blood Plasma among Swedish Female Fish Consumers in Relation to Low Birth Weight. American Journal of Epidemiology. 147 (5): 493.

Safe, S. H. (1994). Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Environmental Impact, Biochemical and Toxic Responses, and Implications for Risk Assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 24:(2): 87-149.

Schell, L. M. et al 2000. Polychlorinated biphenyls and thyroid function in adolescents of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference, Turin, Italy.

Stewart, P. et al 2000. Prenatal PCB exposure and neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 22: 21-29.

Treon, J. F. et al 1956. The Toxicity of the Vapors of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. American Industrial Hygiene Association 17:204-213.

Weinand-Harer, A. et al 1997. Behavioral effects of maternal exposure to an ortho-chlorinated or a coplanar PCB congener in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 3: 97-103.

PCBs and Wildlife

Barron, M. G., H. Galbraith and D. Beltman. 1995. Comparative reproductive and developmental toxicology of PCBs in birds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 112C: 1-14.

Bosveld, A. T. C., J. Gradener, A. J. Murk, A. Brouwer, M. van Kempen, E. H. G. Evers and M. Van den Berg. 1995. Effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in common tern (Sterna hirundo) breeding in estuarine and coastal colonies in the Netherlands and Belgium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14: 99-115.

Brunstrom, B. and K. Halldin. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of environmental pollutants in the Arctic. Toxicology Letters 112-113: 111-118.

Chiu, A., N. Chiu, N. T. Beaubier, J. Beaubier, R. Nalesnik, D. Singh, W. R. Hill, C. Lau and J. Riebow. 2000. Effects and mechanisms of PCB ecotoxicity in food chains: algae, fish, seal, polar bear. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews. 18: 127-152.

Clark, K. E., L. J. Niles and W. Stanskey. 1998. Environmental contaminants associated with reproductive failure in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61: 247-254.

Crews, D., J. M. Bergeron and J. A. McLachlan. 1995. The role of estrogen in turtle sex differentiation and the effect of PCBs. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Supplement 7): 73-77.

Edwards, R. 1999. Sea sickness. New Scientist 164: 12.

Erickson, M. 1986. Analytical Chemistry of PCBs. Boston: Butterworth Publishers.

Friend, M. and D. O. Trainer. 1970. Polychlorinated biphenyl: interaction with duck hepatic virus. Science 170: 1314-1316.

Giesy, J. P. and K. Kannan. 1998. Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 28: 511-569.

Heaton, S. N., S. J. Bursian, J. P. Giesy, D. E. Tillitt, J. A. Render, P. D. Jones, D. A. Verbrugge, T. J. Kubiak and R. J. Aulerich. 1995. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan. 1. Effects on reproduction and survival, and the potential risks to wild mink populations. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 28: 334-343.

Hoffman, D. J., B. A. Rattner, C. M. Bunck, A. Krynitsky, H. M. Ohlendorf and R. W. Lowe. 1986. Association between PCBs and lower embryonic weight in black-crowned night herons in San Francisco Bay. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 19: 383-391.

Mason, C. F. and W. M. O'Sullivan. Organochlorine pesticide residues and PCBs in otters (Lutra lutra) from Ireland. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48: 387-393.

McCarty, J. P. and A. L. Secord. 1999. Nest-building behavior in PCB-contaminated tree swallows. Auk 116: 55-63.

National Academy of Sciences, 1991. Seafood Safety. Committee on Evaluation of Safety of Fishery Products. National Academy Press; Washington, D.C.

NYS DEC, 04/02/01. Press Release: Mammals, Soil Near Hudson River Have Elevated PCB Levels, Preliminary Findings Indicate River PCBs may be Affecting Wildlife.

Peakall, D. B. and J. L. Lincer. 1996. Do PCBs cause eggshell thinning? Environmental Pollution 91: 127-129.

Ross, P., R. D. Swart, R. Addison, H. Van Loveren, J. Vos and A. Osterhaus. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: wildlife at risk? Toxicology 112: 157-169.

Ross, P. S., J. G. Vos, L. S. Birnbaum and A. D. M. E. Osterhaus. 2000. PCBs are a health risk for humans and wildlife. Science 289: 1878-1879.

Russell, R. W., K. A. Gillan and G. D. Haffner. 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16: 2258-2263.

Safe, S. H. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 24: 87-149.

Sagerup, K., E. O. Henriksen, A. Skorping, J. U. Skaare and G. W. Gabrielsen. 2000. Intensity of parasitic nematodes increases with organochlorine levels in the glaucous gull. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 532-539.

Simms, W., S. Jeffries, M. Ikonomou and P. S. Ross. 2000. Contaminant-related disruption of vitamin A dynamics in free-ranging harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19: 2844-2849.

Smits, J. E. G. and G. R. Bortolotti. 2001. Antibody-mediated immunotoxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 62: 217-226.

Swanson, G. M., H. E. Ratcliffe and L. J. Fischer. 1995. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): A critical assessment of the evidence for adverse health effects. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 21: 136-150.

Tanabe, S., N. Kannan, A. Subramanian, S. Watanabe and R. Tatsukawa. 1987. Highly toxic coplanar PCBs: Occurrence, source, persistency and toxic implications to wildlife and humans. Environmental Pollution 47: 147-163.

Tilson, H. A. and R. J. Kavlock. 1997. The workshop on endocrine disrupter research needs: A report. NeuroToxicology 18: 389-392.

Van den Berg, M., L. Birnbaum, A. T. C. Bosveld, B. Brunstrom, P. Cook, M. Feeley, J. P. Giesy, A. Hanberg, R. Hasegawa, S. W. Kennedy, T. Kubiak, J. C. Larsen, F. X. R. Van Leeuwen, A. K. D. Liem, C. Nolt, R. E. Peterson, L. Poellinger, S. Safe, D. Schrenk, D. Tillitt, M. Tysklind, M. Younes, F. Waern and T. Zacharewski. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives 106: 775-792.

Van den Berg, M., B. L. H. J. Craane, T. Sinnige, S. Van Mourik, S. Dirksen, T. Boudewijn, M. Van der Gaag, I. J. Lutke-Schipholt, A. Spenkelink and A. Brouwer. 1994. Biochemical and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the cormorant (Phalacrocorus carbo) after in ovo exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13: 803-816.

Zelikoff, J. T., A. Raymond, E. Carlson, Y. Li, J. R. Beaman and M. Anderson. 2000. Biomarkers of immunotoxicity in fish: from the lab to the ocean. Toxicology Letters 112-113: 325-331.


Bastone, William. 1998. Striped Bass may be New York's Newest Contraband. The Village Voice. December 9-15.

National Academy of Sciences, 1991. Seafood Safety. Committee on Evaluation of Safety of Fishery Products. National Academy Press; Washington, D.C.

New York State Department of Health, 2001. Health Advisories: Chemicals in Game and Sportfish, 2000-2001. Division of Environmental Health Assessment, 2001.

Reinert, Robert E., et al., 1991. Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Fish Consumption Advisories in the United States. American Fisheries Society; Vol. 16, No. 6.

Smith, C. Lavett, 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. NYSDEC Publication. pp. 284-285.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991. Federal Assistance Plan for State Fish Consumption Advisories. Office of Science and Technology.

Environmental Dredging

Atlas Environmental Dredge Bucket Homepage:

Cable Arm Corporation Homepage:

Clean Water Action Council:

Cleland, Joshua (1997). Advances in Dredging Contaminated Sediment: New Technologies and Experience Relevant to the Hudson River PCBs Site. Scenic Hudson Report

Cleland, Joshua (2000). Rults of Contaminate Sediment Cleanup Relevant to the Hudson River. Scenic Hudson Report

Conbar International Homepage:

Eddy Pump Corporation Homepage:

Ellicott Corporation Homepage:

Environmental Canada Report on 150/30 Model Pneuma Pump:

Gordon, J. (2000). Dredging Works. Clearwater Navigator Nov/Dec 2000.

Hayes, D. F. (2000). Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality Impacts Associated with Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site Cleanup Activities. FS Book 5.

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2000), Press Release 11/13/00:

San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, Dredging "Best Management Practices" - Appendix I:

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Homepage:

Proposed Remediation Plan

1984. US EPA, Record of Decision (ROD).

Treatment Technologies

Hirschhorn, J. S. (1994). Technology Assessment: Treatment Technologies for PCB Contaminated Sediment. Hudson River Sloop Clearwater.

ATSDR (1993). Proceedings of the Expert Panel Workshop to Evaluate the Public Health Implications for the Treatment and Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Contaminated Waste. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Online at

Renholds, J. (1998). In Situ Treatment of Contaminated Sediments. Technology Status Report prepared for the U.S. EPA Technology Innovation Office. Online at


Achman, D. R. et al, 1992. Volatilization of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Environmental Science and Technology, 27 (1) 75.

ATSDR (undated/c. 1999). Health Consultation: Residential Air Sampling, Parcel Number J9-23-7, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR (1993). Proceedings of the Expert Panel Workshop to Evaluate the Public Health Implications for the Treatment and Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Contaminated Waste. Online at

Chiarenzelli, J, Scrudato, R., Bush, B., Carpenter, D., and Bushart, B. (1998). Do Large-scale Remedial and Dredging Events Have the Potential to Release Significant Amounts of Semivolatile Compounds to the Atmosphere? Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(2):47-49.

Chiarenzelli, J. R.., Scrudato, R. J., and Wunderlich, M. L. (1997). Volatile Loss of PCB Aroclors from Subaqueous Sand. Envronmental Science and Technology, 31(2):597-602.

Chiarenzelli, J. R.., Scrudato, R. J., Wunderlich, M. L., Oenga, G. N., and Lashko, O. P. (1997). PCB Volatile Loss and the Moisture Content of Sediment During Drying. Chemosphere, 34(11):2429-2436.

Constant, W. D., Thibideaux, L. J., and Erickson, P. (1995). Volatilization of polychlorinated biphenyls from soil following the application of quicklime. American Environmental Laboratory, 1, 7-11.

Cullen, A. C. et al, 1996. Influence of Harbor Contamination on the Level and Composition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Produce in Greater New Bedford, Massachusetts. Environmental Science and Technology, 30 (5) 1581.

Currado, G. M. and Harrad, S. (1998). Comparison of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Indoor and Outdoor Air and the Potential Significance of Inhalation as a Human Exposure Pathway. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 3043-3047.

Datta, S., McConnel, L. L., Baker, J. E., Lenoir, J., and Seiber, J. N. Evidence for Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls to the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada. Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 1378.

DEC (2001). Mammals, Soil Near Hudson River Have Elevated PCB Levels. Data obtained under Freedom of Information Law. New York State Deparment of Environmental Conservation.

Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Bruneau, S., Laliberte, C., Muir, D. C. G., and Norstrom, R. J. (1993). Inuit Exposure to Organochlorines through the Aquatic Food Chain in Arctic Quebec. Environmental Health Perspectives, 101 (7):618.

EPA (1997). Report on the Effects of the Hot Spot Dredging Operations: New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Hatzinger, P. B. and Alexander, M. (1995). Effect of Aging of Chemicals in Soil on Their Biodegradability and Extractability. Environmental Science and Technology, 1995, 29, 537-545.

Mackay, D. (1989). Modeling the Long-Term Behavior of an Organic Contaminant in a Large Lake: Application to PCBs in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 15: 283.

Scrudato, R. J., Chiarenzelli, J. R., Pagano, J. J., and Wunderlich, M. L (1999). Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments: Volatility and Solubility Considerations. Remediation, Spring 1999.

S. P. Bushart, B. Bush, E. L Barnard, and A. Bott (1998). Volatilization of Extensively Dechlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Historically Contaminated Sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17(10):1927-1933.

Public Participation

National Research Council, A Risk Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments, National Academy Press, 2001.

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